Thursday, February 6, 2020

Police corruption relating to money laundering Essay

Police corruption relating to money laundering - Essay Example This nexus of police and politicians often leads to disastrous consequences for the country's prosperity. Political leaders have often been found to be involved in the cases of money laundering in many countries around the world. In such cases, money laundering happens to be the next stage of money laundering. Political leaders generate billions of dollars of funds from different corrupt practices. They cannot deposit this money in country's banks, which then requires to be deposited elsewhere using the money laundering route. International bodies like UN have also raised the issue from time to time, and called upon respective governments to put in place proper rules and regulations which help in controlling the menace of corruption. The 'UN Convention Against Corruption' (UNCAC) is one such international understanding which came into force in 2003 and calls upon member countries to establish criminal offence cases against people indulging in corrupt practices. Despite much persuasio n and resolutions adopted by different countries from time to time, the menace of corruption appears all the more strong all these years. Corruption as such has been defined as the 'abuse of a position of trust to gain an unfair advantage' (Chaikin, 2008). When the extent of unfair advantage gains huge proportions, things appear to go out of hand. Such practices not only prove to be a big drain on the development and resources of the country, but it also adversely impacts the morale of the citizens. Many politicians have often been implicated in money laundering cases. For example, French politicians Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres and Francois Leotard were found to guilty and convicted for money laundering in the political party of the President Chirac (BBC, 2004). In general the money laundering takes places in such a manner that money earned through corrupt means is stashed away in banks abroad, which then finds way back home using false invoices, loans etc. This money is then used by the concerned person to make luxurious purchases or further promote the businesses (Fig). Once the money launderer is able to firm up the chain, then it becomes extremely difficult for the law of the land to trap it, more so because the chain is established with fullest support from the police establishment. Corruption and money laundering often go hand in hand, with the presence of one strengthening the other. While concealing such money, the police administration needs to be paid bribes. Chaikin (2008) defines money laundering as 'a process in which the ownership or control of assets and income are obscured or concealed from tax authorities, law-enforcement agencies or private parties, who have a legitimate interest in discovering the true beneficial owner or controller of such assets/income'. Police administration is the key law enforcement agencies entrusted with taking action against such corrupt practices. Chaikin (2008) further states that money laundering has two inter-related processes, namely; Anyone hiding the money for improper or illegal reasons is involved in money laundering. Money is "cleaned" or sanitised whenever its true nature, source or use is concealed. In some countries this process is called conversion of black money into white money. There were allegations that Iraq was receiving arms and ammunition from international arms dealers even during the period of

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Healthy and Safety Within the Setting Essay Example for Free

Healthy and Safety Within the Setting Essay You have a new member of staff starting and you are responsible for giving them all the information on health and safety requirements in your setting they need to be aware of. Prepare a document/presentation to give to them, which should include the following information: * A brief explanation of the relevant health and safety legislation * How you plan and maintain a healthy and safe environment * What factors do you consider when planning the environment to ensure safety for all. Health and safety legislation. Within the early years setting, we have a duty of care. This means looking after the children and keeping them safe when they are in our care. The health and safety at work act 1974 covers all employment settings within great Britain. The requirements within the act are that:- Buildings should be well kept and with the safety of who ever will be accessing it in mind. The environment as a whole should be kept safe and clean. All equipment should be stored in a safe place. The way in which the staff work should promote the safety of children. Health and safety within the setting. The will be policies and procedures covering health and safety within our setting. As en employee you should be aware of all of the health and safety requirements. The setting should be safe for everyone and not pose risk of danger or injury. A system of safe practice should be in place. Any chemicals or substances should be stored safely and out of the way of the children. All staff should be given the appropriate training and information on the health and safety of the setting and safety regulations. If any rotective clothing is needed then it should be provided free of charge. If and serious injuries or diseases were to happen then they should be reported to the health and safety executive. There should be first aid equipment provided. A representative of safety should be consulted about any issues affecting the work place. All employees should look after their own health and safety and the of the others around them, where their actions could affect others. The employees should cooperate with their employer on health and safety to ensure they keep a safe working environment. Within our setting. Within our setting we have daily checks covering all areas of the building. These are to be done at the beginning and end of each day. We have risk assessments as well which we use to prevent hazards. We keep all hazardous chemicals in the cupboard in the kitchen with a lock on the door. Also the children are not aloud into the kitchen. There is a gate with a lock on to stop them getting through. We have child friendly scissors which are only used under adult supervision. The cutlery that we provide the children with is plastic and so are their plates, bowls and cups. All the taps on the sinks that the children have access to have a block on them. This prevents them from getting to hot so the children cannot get burned. We have socket covers on all plug sockets. We do all the cleaning once the children have left the setting to prevent slips and trips. We have a lock on the front gate and back gate. This is so the children can not get out, but also so that nobody can get in without being let in. ll the radiators have covers on so the children cannot burn themselves on them. Any free standing unit’s the we have, have got locks on the wheels so they cant be moved or run over a child’s foot. We have things on all of the doors to prevent children shutting their finger in them. We make sure we think about all the risks within our setting and we address the problem to prevent an accidents happening. We have policies and procedures in place cove ring all factors of the setting, ensuring we make it as safe an environment for the children and employees as possible.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Diverse Australian Biomes Adapting :: Adaptation Australia Essays

Diverse Australian Biomes Adapting Australia is a land of rather extreme weather conditions and widely diverse climates that force the vegetation living there to adapt in many interesting ways. Australia is the driest continent, and biomes such as grasslands and savannas are prime sources of widespread catastrophic fires. The plants that grow in the vast arid and semi-arid regions of Australia are prone to fires simply because of the desert climates that they grow in. High temperatures combined with low fuel moisture contents, little humidity and drying winds that sweep across the landscape encourage many of the plants living in these areas to burst into flames at fairly frequent intervals. Serotinous cones, protective bark, intricate underground recovery systems, unique seed distributions and even the necessity of fire for reproduction are just some of the amazing ways that the major plant families which grow in these fire-prone areas have learned to adapt to their environments. History of fires in Australia Australia is currently the driest continent in the world and has a vast history of fire to prove it. Bushfires in the Adelaide Hills were first described and recorded in 1827, and have occurred at frequent intervals since that time. Fire weather can reach extremes in places such as Rudall River National Park in NW Western Australia. Temperatures are often above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit), dew points can drop to —37 degrees Celsius, and the winds, uninhibited by trees, can reach speeds of 50-60 km/h (31-37 mph) at any given time in the year. The fuels there may appear to be completely dead, and gaps between plants may be a meter or more (Gill, 1995). In 1966 a massive fire at Brooyar, Queensland had flame heights of 20-25 meters (65-82 feet). In addition to being devastating, the fires are also very unpredictable. A bushfire in the Baulkham Hills in January of 1975 completely destroyed property and some homes, while leaving others untouched. Serious fires occur in the Dandenog Ranges at frequent intervals, and housing there has always been a difficult problem with fire control [3]. Fire has also been used for centuries as an important tool for land management (O’Neill, 1993). Necessary Conditions For Fire Plants that grow in the vast arid and semi-arid regions of Australia are prone to fires simply because of the desert climate they grow in. High temperatures, low fuel moisture contents, little humidity and drying winds that sweep across the landscape encourage small patches of plants to burst into flames.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

How does Coleridge tell the story in part 4 of Rime of the Ancient Mariner Essay

Part 4 begins with another attempt from the Wedding Guest to get away, shown through the direct speech of the Wedding Guest, ‘I FEAR thee, ancient Mariner! ’ The direct speech is also used to remind us that the Mariner is telling a story within the poem. The capitalisation of the word, ‘fear’, is used to echo the honest and fearful reaction of both the Wedding Guest and the reader, following the tragic event that has occurred in the previous part. The first stanza is used to re-acquaint us with the characters in Coleridge’s poem and we are reminded that the Mariner appears to possess all of the features of a dead person, ‘long, and lank, and brown’, but is still alive, reaffirming his liminal state; he is somewhere inbetween life and death. In stanza 2, the ‘glittering eye’ motif is echoed, reminding us of the Mariner’s appearance, the singular eye implies that he not fully there, whilst ‘glittering’ possesses connotations of witchery, furthering the idea that the Mariner is a supernatural creature. In stanzas 3 and 4, Coleridge largely focuses on the isolation of the Mariner. In the 3rd stanza, we see the poet use a lot of repetition in order to communicate the true extent of isolation and his misery, ‘Alone, alone, all all alone, Alone on a wide, wide sea! ’ The anaphora emphasises his feelings of loneliness, whilst the assonance slows down the rate in which the poem read, allowing a lot of focus on his seclusion. In the 4th stanza, the Mariner equates death with beauty because his loneliness gets to such an unbearable degree that he is resentful of the dead mariners; they are free of the torture that the Mariner continues to endure alone, he sees the ‘many men [as] so beautiful! ’ The intensifier in the quote, ‘so’, demonstrates the mariner’s newfound love for humanity, as he misses their company, it also acts as an indication for his remorse, whilst the exclamation mark simply serves to emphasise the statement. He bitterly acknowledges that ‘a thousand thousand slimy things live on; and so did [he]. ’ Coleridge utilizes structure in this particular quote; the enjambment in the line helps to highlight that the horrors continue to live on; then with the use of the semi colon, the Mariner is able to liken himself to these unnatural and horrible creatures, highlighting the guilt that he continues to feel. By the 6th stanza, the guilt felt by the Mariner is so overwhelming that he is unable to pray, ‘I looked to Heaven, and tried to pray’. The constant semantic fields relating to religion in this stanza, ‘prayer’, ‘saint’, suggest to the reader that the Mariner is trying to bring himself closer to God; it also indicates that the Mariner has begun his attempt at redemption, as at this point, it’s so hard for him to ignore his own guilt. Despite his ‘prayer’ to God, he is unable to escape from his guilt through anything because of a ‘wicked whisper’. His guilt continues into the 7th stanza, ‘the dead were at my feet’, here, the dead mariners are not only a physical burden for the Ancient Mariner but also a burden, within his mind, on his already guilty concious. The chiasmus-like structure of the quote, ‘for the sky and the sea, and the sea and the sky’, in the 7th stanza reflects the mariner’s self-reflection as he’s telling the story, consolidating his role as storyteller. The deviation of the ballad form also establishes a re-focus of narration; the quote may be intended as another reminder that we are hearing a character’s story within a poem. The Mariner’s guilt is strengthened, in the 8th stanza, when he states that the accusatory looks of the mariners, as they died, have ‘never passed away’, not only have the expressions of the mariners stayed with him, but the general guilt has remained with him. The ‘cold sweat’ that ‘melted from [the dead mariners’] limbs’ makes them seem almost life-like, the oxymoronic language helps to convey their liminal state. In the 8th stanza, the mariner states that the ‘curse in a dead man’s eye’ is ‘more horrible than that’ of ‘an orphan’s curse’, reflecting the extent of blame received by the Mariner, as well as his general guilt and shame. His suffering is emphasised by Coleridge’s intertextual reference to the bible, ‘seven days, seven nights, I saw that curse’, as there is an implication that God is punishing the Mariner for destroying one of His own creations, the Albatross. Also, the quote suggests that the Mariner is becoming closer to both the idea of God, and God, Himself. The 10th stanza in part 4 marks a moment of change, as the Mariner doesn’t acknowledge his guilt. Coleridge also communicates the potential for change, as he returns back to the original ballad form from the sectet, implying that some sort of transition is about to occur. The celestial imagery used by Coleridge in the stanza, ‘moon’, ‘sky’, and ‘star’, reinforces the idea of transition, the sky and stars commonly symbolise hope and create a sense of positive anticipation, as well as the moon, which is often symbolic of change. The idea of transition is supported further by Coleridge’s use of gerund verbs, ‘moving’, ‘going’, in the stanza. Arguably, they imply that the Mariner is moving on from his previously overwhelming guilt and instead, embracing new ideas of nature, God and humanity in general. Indeed, in the 12th stanza, we see that the Mariner’s appreciation of nature is able to distract him from his strong feelings of guilt, ‘the water-snakes†¦moved in tracks of shining white’. The word, ‘tracks’, creates a contrast with the directionless mariner, he has been unable to connect with God and nature until now, when he sees the water-snakes and their ‘tracks’ offer him some sense of clarity and purpose. The 11th, 12th and 13th stanzas are all quintets; together they are able to reflect the Mariner’s transitional period into the glory of nature, triggered by ‘the moving moon’ in the 10th stanza. In the 13th and 14th stanzas, we see the Mariner’s newfound complete adoration for nature. Coleridge uses regal imagery to convey the mariner’s love for nature, and to reflect the change brought by the moon, ‘rich attire’, ‘glossy green†¦and velvet’. Additionally, in the 14th stanza, despite his description of the water-snakes regal aspects he is unable to express the beauty of the products of nature; ‘no tongue their beauty might declare’. His newfound admiration for nature has made him realise that the true beauty of nature is beyond the expression of mankind, and as he is humbled by religion and nature he believes that only God is capable of creating such things, ‘a spring of love gushed from my heart and I blessed them unaware. ’ The part ends with him finally being in touch with God and religion, ‘I could pray’, meaning that he is more connected to a high power, God. There is also a signature reference to the Albatross, ‘[it] fell off and sank like lead into the sea. ’ Albatross represents the burden, and the simile suggests that the burden of blame has finally been released. There is also the assumption that the Albatross is now back in contact with its natural habitat, the sea, a part of nature. The enjambment in the line creates and emphasises a more visual interpretation of the Albatross parting the Mariner’s neck, as it reflects the bird’s downward movement. By the end of the part, much of the Mariner’s initial guilt has been abandoned or at least temporarily distracted by nature. We also get the impression that the curse is over for the Mariner, as he is now starting to acknowledge and admire world’s beauty, however this is just Coleridge lulling us into a false sense of security, as sadly, the curse is far from over.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Counterculture - Definition in the Study of Sociology

Definition: A counterculture is a subculture that rejects and opposes significant elements of the dominant culture. Countercultures can take many forms, from religious cults to communes to political parties.

Friday, December 27, 2019

A Simple Guide to Global Climate Change

A discussion of global climate change, also called global warming, can get very complicated very quickly. Fortunately, it can be explained rather simply. Here are the basics you need to know about climate change: Warmer Land and Sea The climate has warmed and cooled many times during Earth’s geological history, over millions of years. However, the global increase in mean temperature we have observed in the last decades has been both unusually rapid and quite large. It translates to warmer  air  temperatures and warmer sea water almost everywhere on Earth. Less Ice, LessSnow This increase in temperatures has led to increased melting of most of the world’s glaciers. In addition, the thick  Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets are losing volume, and sea ice covers an increasingly small portion of the Arctic while also getting thinner. The winter snow cover in most areas of the U.S. is thinner and does not last as long over the winter. Sea levels are rising, both because of the melting ice, and because warmer water expands and takes up more space. Less Predictable Weather While the word climate refers to long-term statistics on many aspects of temperature and precipitation, weather is a more immediate phenomenon, and is what we feel outside everyday. Global climate change is transforming our experience of weather events in different ways depending on where we live. Common changes include more frequent heavy rain events, regular winter thaws, or persistent droughts. All About the Greenhouse Effect Human activities release in the atmosphere many gases that create a greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases hold back the sun’s energy that had been reflected by Earth’s surface. This heat is then redirected towards the ground, increasing temperatures. Most of the observed warming can be attributed to these gases. How Are Greenhouse Gas Produced? The most important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide and methane. They are released when we extract, process, and burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas for electricity, manufacturing, and transportation. These gases are also produced during industrial activities, when we clear land for housing and farming, and during some agricultural activities. Are Sun Cycles to Blame? The Earth’s surface temperature rises and falls with slight changes during natural sun cycles. However, these solar cycles and the changes they produce are well understood and much less significant than those driven by greenhouse gases. Global Warming Consequences The consequences of global warming include more frequent coastal flooding, heat waves, extreme precipitation events, food insecurity, and urban vulnerability. The global warming consequences are being felt (and will be felt) differently in different parts of the world. Global climate change often affects more those who do not have the economic means to develop ways to adapt to the changes. Of course, climate change affect not only humans but the rest of the living world as well.   Global warming has few positive consequences. Gains in agricultural production, often cited as positive, are easily offset by increases in pest problems (including invasive species), droughts, and severe weather events. We can respond by mitigating global warming, which is to reduce it by curbing greenhouse gas emissions. We can also capture carbon dioxide, the most abundant greenhouse gas, out of the atmosphere and store it safely on earth. We can, in addition, adapt by investing in infrastructure, transportation, and agriculture in order to continue living with the inevitable changes brought by global warming.    What Can You Do? Most importantly, reduce your greenhouse gas emissions, whether you contribute as an individual or as a business owner.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Aging Essay - 716 Words

Aging Throughout the semester we have tried to understand individual choice and individual experiences in the context of social forces and constraints, and the patterning of experience by location in the social structure. Present your understanding of this very sociological perspective. Use examples and readings to support your position. Illustrate your points by referring to a specific phenomenon. Many times when asked about aging, people will respond with the statement, Aging is what you make of it. This statement places the responsibility to cope in society on the individual. Through careful analysis of the sociological perspective, this can be understood to be another blame the victim situation. Social forces are†¦show more content†¦These ageist stereotypes are socially constructed for a number of reasons the major one being to maintain the status quo. There are many consequences of ageist stereotypes including outright disdain and dislike, subtle avoidance of contact, discrimination in employment and housing, and the creation of a fear of growing older. Even the youngest children demonstrate ageist beliefs about older people. These childrens parents do not deliberately sit down and teach them these stereotypes. They learn them from all of society just as their parents learned them. This social construction of aging goes deep into society. It is in public policy, media, and just about every other major social institution. These factors can have tremendous influence on older adults and the aging experience. Since very part of society reinforces beliefs about what the aging experience is and should be, older adults do not have many individual choices to make the most out of aging. Society creates dependency of the older people through social institutions and programs. This burden of dependency has beenShow MoreRelatedAging Of Aging : Aging2605 Words   |  11 PagesWhat is aging? It is not easy to come up with a working definition of aging; different academics around the world defined ‘aging’ from different perspectives. Based on the collected information I have, I define aging –a multidimensional process of physiological, mental and social changes that occurred over the course of life. Though it is beyond human control, aging experiences may vary between individuals. â€Å"In the developed world, chronological time plays a paramount role. The age of 60 or 65, roughlyRead MoreEffects Of Aging On Aging And Aging1343 Words   |  6 Pagesover time. The changes include physical, social and psychological changes. Causes of aging are very uncertain. Besides, there are several factors which predispose an individual to premature aging. 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So, before we start cryingRead MoreAging Population772 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"To a large extent, current research and development and government policies have helped to ease the aging process.† Discuss this statement in relation to your particular field of study or interest (e.g. economics, science, medicine, social policy, architecture, psychology, technological inventions). â€Å"Population ageing is both a triumph and a challenge† (Lim, 2008). With the advances in economics and medical development as well as better health systems, Singaporeans now are having longer lifeRead More Aging Essays1688 Words   |  7 PagesWhen we are young we never think about what we are going to be like when we are 80 or 90. We just think of the present. Aging is something almost everyone experience’s in their lifetime. Everyone ages at their own rate and time, thus no one has the same experience. Some theorists believe that as we age we become disengage from society, others believe it’s the choices we make that cause disengagement from society. It’s something psychologists have argued for a long time. There is not a lot of researchRead MoreThe Sociological Aspects Of Aging1722 Words   |  7 Pagesand physical challenges of the aged. The sociological aspects of aging are defined by the activities an individual engages in while transitioning to old age. To age well, a person needs to take part in social activities that deal with family or the community. For instance, joining a members club or offering to volunteer in certain activities aid in ageing well. It is, however, important to note that social perspectives of aging are diverse across different cultures. For instance, a 40-year-old